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Glossary of Terms


Address Resolution Protocol associates an IP address to a hardware address called a Media Access Control (MAC) address.


The Bootstrap Protocol is a variant of DHCP. Clients must be enabled to use this protocol.


Refers to a file where data is temporarily stored. WinRoute uses caching for the temporary storage of web pages to maintain bandwidth.


Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is a protocol for organizing and simplifying the administration of IP configuration for computers in a network. A DHCP server such as WinRoute maintains the settings that are issued to each client within the network that is cond as a DHCP client. These settings define, among other things, where the client must send requests for Domain Name resolution and to whom the client should send all IP traffic that it does not know how to route.


Domain Name System is a naming scheme for IP addressing. For example www.kerio.com is a domain name and has an associated IP address. A <"567">DNS server matches domain names to an IP address. We use the domain name system because it is easier to remember a domain name than a string of numbers.


The <"449">ETRN command is used when an SMTP server is not online 24 hours a day. An ETRN enabled SMTP server will hold messages in the queue until another SMTP server uses the command to have them flushed.


A filtering module located on a gateway machine that examines all incoming and outgoing traffic to determine if it may be routed to its destination. WinRoute provides an extensive firewall via: <"433">NAT's functionality, the assignment of rules for specified IP addresses, and the ability to record certain information going one way so it may be authorized on the way back.


TCP uses the following flags as a means of client/server communication.

SYNC - Synchronize - the establishing packet from a TCP connection

ACK - Acknowledge - acknowledgement about the data exchange

RST - Reset - request for re-establishing of the connection

URG - Urgent - urgent packet

PSH - Push - request for immediate delivery of the packet to the higher layers

FIN - Finalize - finalize the connection


File Transfer Protocol is an application protocol used to transfer, update, delete, move, rename or copy data across the internet.


The point of entrance from one network to another. A gateway is responsible for the proper distribution of data coming in and going out of a local area network. WinRoute must be installed on the gateway machine, also referred to as the host computer.


Internet Control Message Protocol uses datagrams to report information between routers.

IP address

An IP address is a unique 32-bit number, which identifies a computer in an IP network.


Internet Protocol Security allows for virtual private networking using authentication and encryption between IP networks.


A Local Area Network (LAN) is a group of interconnected computers with the ability to share resources.

MAC address

Media Access Control address is more specific than an IP address and cannot be changed because it is specific to each network hardware device. While routers such as WinRoute use IP addressing for routing decisions, switches use MAC addressing for path determination.

MX records

MX (Mail Exchange) records contain the information about other mail servers on the Internet. MX is a type of name resolution that places the mail domain i.e. mail.yourdomain.com to an IP address. SMTP servers rely on <"409">MX records to send email.


<"433">NAT - Network Address Translation - also called IP masquerade, is a process of translating the source header of IP packets so they will be routable across wide area networks.

Network interface

A network interface is any device that connects a computer with other computers by means of a communication medium. A network interface may be an Ethernet card, modem, ISDN card, etc. The computer sends and receives data by means of a network interface.

Network Mask

Network mask is used to group IP addresses together. There is a group of addresses assigned to each network segment. For example, the mask groups together 254 IP addresses. If we have, as another example, a sub-network with mask, the addresses we may assign to computers on the sub-network are to, with a broadcast address of


A packet is a basic communication data unit used when transmitting information from one computer to another. The maximum length of a packet depends on the communication medium. As an example, in Ethernet networks the maximum length is1500 bytes. A data packet can be divided into two parts: the header part and the data part. The header contains information needed for communication between nodes; the data is the body of the packet that is ultimately received by the application.


The (Post Office Protocol) POP3 protocol is a TCP protocol using port 110. It is used to gather email. WinRoute functions as both a POP3 server and client.


A port is a 16-bit number (the allowed range being 1 through 65535) used by the TCP and UDP protocols at the transport layer. Ports are used to address applications (services) that run on a computer. If there was only a single network application running on the computer, there would be no need for port numbers and the IP address only would suffice for addressing services. However, several applications may run at once on a particular computer and we need to differentiate among them. This is what port numbers are used for. Thus, a port number may be seen as an address of an application within the computer.

Port Mapping

<"495">Port mapping (or Port Address Translation - PAT) is the process where packets arriving to a particular IP address/port can be translated and thus redirected to a different IP/port. This functionality is a way to create a persistent passage through <"433">NAT. <"434">Port Mapping is only necessary for incoming connections, not returning traffic.


<"438">PPTP - Point To Point Tunneling Protocol - is the Microsoft protocol for Virtual Private Networking.


Defines rules for the transmission of data.


<"435">Proxy is another method of sharing of Internet access. Proxy operates with the data on a higher protocol level so that Internet sharing with Proxy servers was never reliable and also required a special application gateway for each networking protocol.


Remote Access Service refers to the ability to dial into another computer or network remotely. In the context of WinRoute, <"573">RAS simply refers to a dial-up connection.

Routing Table

The Routing Table defines which interface should transmit an IP packet based on destination IP information.


The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) protocol is a TCP protocol that uses port 25. All email is sent using SMTP. SMTP servers inspect the email header and may generate more pieces of the same email if there are multiple recipients. The destination address is analyzed and either delivered to a local mail box or forwarded to another SMTP server. When the email reaches the SMTP server occupying the domain for which the email was intended, the email is stripped of specific header information and delivered to a local user account, whereupon the user must initiate a connection to the server to access the email via POP3, IMAP, or HTTP.


TCP/IP is a sum of networking protocols used for communication across wide area networks such as the Internet.


(User Datagram Protocol) Uses a special type of packet called a datagram. Datagrams do not require a response; they are one way only (connectionless). Datagrams are usually used for streaming media because an occasional packet loss will not affect the final product of the transmission.


Virtual Private Networking allows local area networks to communicate across wide area networks, typically over an encrypted channel.